AP:儿童期虐待如何影响人格障碍的形成

  • 虐待儿童,人格障碍
  • 千人智库


人格障碍影响个体生活的方方面面。关于人格障碍的形成原因,以往的研究均证实,除生物学因素外,儿童期经历如父母养育方式、童年创伤经历、家庭环境等因素亦有重大影响,而各种形式的儿童期虐待,更是与多种类型的人格障碍之间存在相关关系。

深圳大学师范学院心理系蒋艳华对人格障碍与儿童期虐待的关系研究进行了综述,并将其发表在汉斯《心理学进展》2014年3月期刊上。文中表示,人格障碍是在个体没有智力缺陷或认知过程障碍存在的情况下,其心理和行为模式持久的社会适应不良,从而导致心理社会功能的异常,具有一定的稳定性。儿童期虐待对儿童的认知发展、社会情绪发展、人格及社会行为等均产生不同程度的影响。

心理学进展

由于DSM-IV、ICD-10、CCMD-3等主要的精神疾病分类及诊断系统都将人格障碍诊断年龄限制在18岁以上,使得大部分人格障碍研究都集中在成人群体,但近年国内外已有不少关于青春期人格障碍的相关研究。在国内外关于人格障碍的研究中,对于人格障碍在个体人格结构形成早期即儿童或青少年期的发展规律的研究较多。国内对青春期人格障碍的研究内容多为流行病学调查及与父母养育方式的相关研究。由于青春期人格结构还不稳定,因而具可塑性,许多行为、心理问题易在此阶段产生,加强此阶段人格障碍的研究对于人格障碍的干预具有重要意义。

大量的研究证明,儿童期虐待容易使受害者形成人格障碍、神经症、情感障碍、创伤后应激障碍、性问题、自杀及其他各种行为问题,对受害者心理、生理及社会功能的不良影响往往持续终生。目前儿童虐待的评估量表较多,现摘录以下具有代表性的几种,包括童年期创伤经历问卷,儿童虐待和创伤量表,儿童虐待史问卷,以及儿童期虐待史自评量表。

迄今为止,儿童虐待尤其是儿童情感虐待尚未被人们充分认识。因此,作者认为,对儿童虐待尤其是对其中儿童忽视的定义的修订,将有助于使用统一的评估标准,同时也能为制定操作性较强之儿童保护法案以及为改变父母或教师的不当教育方式提供理论依据。

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